This page may not "ALL" the knitting terms you will need. It will be added to as I think of ones that I've needed along the way.
Round (rnd): knitting (or purling) the full circle of stitches on circular needles or double pointed needles
Stockinette Stitch (st. st.): knit the odd rows and purl the even rows; makes the edges of the piece curl in
Rib Stitch: combination of knitting and purl the same amount of stitches (k2, p2 for example) for some portion of the piece, the whole width, or whole round.
Make 1 (m1): an increase stitch in which the horizontal thread, between stitches, and used as a stitch on following rows.